In a previous blog post, I described the steps to streamline the pre-installation steps on Oracle Linux for Oracle Database 12c using the Database preinstallation package. In this post you will learn how to do a fully automated installation of Oracle Database 12c on Oracle Linux running in an Oracle VM VirtualBox guest. The tutorial is based on a Vagrantfile published in our Vagrant repo on GitHub.


Because this installation method uses VirtualBox, Vagrant and an Oracle Linux Vagrant Box, the whole process can be automated, requiring minimal to no input. Assuming you have VirtualBox, Vagrant and git installed, these are the steps needed to install Oracle Database:


  1. Clone the relevant GitHub repository
  2. Download the Oracle Database 12c installation media from OTN
  3. Issue a Vagrant to create the VM and start the Database installation process
  4. Wait 15-25 minutes, depending on your network bandwidth and machine horsepower
  5. Done


The commands are straightforward:


$ git clone

$ cd vagrant-boxes/OracleDatabase/

<download Oracle Database installation zip file>

$ vagrant up


How Does This Work?


Assuming you have the required tools in place, the steps summarized earlier cause Vagrant to do the following


  • read the Vagrantfile (more about that later)
  • create a headless VM based on the pre-packaged Oracle Linux 7 Vagrant box
  • provision the VM by runing a script that
    • updates Oracle Linux to the latest available packages from Oracle Linux yum server
    • performs Database pre-installation checks and installs required packages
    • unzips the Database installion files,
    • installs the Oracle Database 12c software
    • creates a database and pluggable database container


After the installation has completed, you can either log in to the guest VM itself and interact with the Database there or, you can leave the VM running —headless— and connect from the host operating system to the Database using tools such as SQL Developer.




Before You Get Started


You will need the following tools installed to follow this tutorial





Clone the vagrant-boxes repository from GitHub


$ git clone
Cloning into 'vagrant-boxes'...
remote: Counting objects: 382, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (77/77), done.
remote: Total 382 (delta 67), reused 108 (delta 52), pack-reused 249
Receiving objects: 100% (382/382), 80.99 KiB | 0 bytes/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (195/195), done.
Checking connectivity... done.



Download Oracle Database Installation Files


From the Oracle Database 12c Release 2 download page, grab the Linux x86-64 file. Accept the license and click File 1 for Linux x86-64 (see Fig. 1)


Fig 1. Database 12c Release 2 installation file


Place the downloaded Database installation zip File in the appropriate directory


Because you are installing Database 12c, change to the appropriate directory:


$ cd vagrant-boxes/OracleDatabase/



You should see the following before you proceed:


$ ls -1F


For my installation I used Vagrant 2.0.1 and VirtualBox 5.2.8


$ vagrant -v
Vagrant 2.0.1
$ vboxmanage -v


What's in a Vagrantfile?


Before we kick off the installation, let's take a look at the Vagrantfile, the file that controls everything from creating the Oracle Linux VM, to installing the Database.


At the top of the Vagrantfile, there's a section that defines a virtual machine to be based on a Vagrant base box. In this case it's using a the latest available Oracle Linux 7 box from


Vagrant.configure(VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION) do |config| = "ol7-latest"
  config.vm.box_url = ""



This section configures port forwarding in VirtualBox so that a SQL*Net connection to port 1521 on the host operating system (for example) will end up connecting to the Database listener in the VM guest.


  # Oracle port forwarding "forwarded_port", guest: 1521, host: 1521 "forwarded_port", guest: 5500, host: 5500



The last section tells Vagrant to provision the VM by running an install script that performs the Database installation. It also defines and sets environment variables for the execution of the script.  You can adjust these if you wish, but it's not required.


 config.vm.provision "shell", path: "scripts/", env:
      "ORACLE_BASE"        => "/opt/oracle",
      "ORACLE_HOME"        => "/opt/oracle/product/",
      "ORACLE_SID"          => "ORCLCDB",
      "ORACLE_PDB"          => "ORCLPDB1",
      "ORACLE_EDITION"      => "EE"


You can take a look at the install script here, but suffice to say it uses a response file to perform an installation of Oracle Dabase 12c using so-called response files so that no user interaction is required.


Start the installation


$ vagrant up


Now, grab yourself a beverage or a snack. The installation can take anywhere from 15 to 25 minutes, depending on the power of the host running the VM and your bandwidth (to download the Oracle Linux box). On a late 2013 Macbook Pro with SSD storage and 8GB of RAM it took about 23 minutes to get from the initial vagrant command to fully installed Oracle Database.


You will see tons of output as the VM is configured and the Database is installed. Some snippets below:


==> default: Running provisioner: shell...

    default: Running: /var/folders/dq/zx1355j55lj8n9wszqjq1j640000gn/T/

    default: INSTALLER: Started up

    default: Resolving Dependencies

    default: --> Running transaction check

    default: ---> Package acl.x86_64 0:2.2.51-12.el7 will be updated

    default: ---> Package acl.x86_64 0:2.2.51-14.el7 will be an update

    default: ---> Package acpid.x86_64 0:2.0.19-8.el7 will be updated

    default: ---> Package acpid.x86_64 0:2.0.19-9.el7 will be an update

    default: ---> Package audit-libs.x86_64 0:2.7.6-3.el7 will be updated

    default: ---> Package audit-libs.x86_64 0:2.8.1-3.el7 will be an update

    default: ---> Package bash.x86_64 0:4.2.46-29.el7_4 will be updated

    default: ---> Package bash.x86_64 0:4.2.46-30.el7 will be an update

    default: ---> Package bind-libs-lite.x86_64 32:9.9.4-51.el7_4.2 will be updated

    default: ---> Package bind-libs-lite.x86_64 32:9.9.4-61.el7 will be an update

    default: ---> Package bind-license.noarch 32:9.9.4-51.el7_4.2 will be updated


    default: --> Finished Dependency Resolution


    default: Dependencies Resolved


    default: ================================================================================

    default:  Package                     Arch   Version                 Repository     Size

    default: ================================================================================

    default: Installing:

    default:  kernel-uek                  x86_64 4.1.12-124.14.1.el7uek  ol7_UEKR4      46 M

    default:  kernel-uek-firmware         noarch 4.1.12-124.14.1.el7uek  ol7_UEKR4     2.5 M

    default: Updating:

    default:  acl                         x86_64 2.2.51-14.el7           ol7_latest     81 k

    default:  acpid                       x86_64 2.0.19-9.el7            ol7_latest     68 k

    default:  audit-libs                  x86_64 2.8.1-3.el7             ol7_latest     99 k




    default: Dependencies Resolved


    default: ================================================================================

    default:  Package                 Arch   Version                        Repository  Size

    default: ================================================================================

    default: Installing:

    default:  oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall

    default:                          x86_64 1.0-3.el7                      ol7_latest  19 k

    default: Installing for dependencies:

    default:  bind-libs               x86_64 32:9.9.4-61.el7                ol7_latest 1.0 M

    default:  bind-utils              x86_64 32:9.9.4-61.el7                ol7_latest 204 k



    default: INSTALLER: Oracle preinstall and openssl complete

    default: INSTALLER: Oracle directories created

    default: INSTALLER: Environment variables set

    default: Archive:  /vagrant/

    default:    creating: /vagrant/database/

    default:    creating: /vagrant/database/install/




    default: Starting Oracle Universal Installer...


    default: Checking Temp space: must be greater than 500 MB.   Actual 30233 MB    Passed

    default: Checking swap space: must be greater than 150 MB.   Actual 4088 MB    Passed

    default: Preparing to launch Oracle Universal Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2018-04-18_08-33-54PM. Please wait ...

    default: [WARNING] [INS-32055] The Central Inventory is located in the Oracle base.

    default:    ACTION: Oracle recommends placing this Central Inventory in a location outside the Oracle base directory.

    default: You can find the log of this install session at:

    default:  /opt/oracle/oraInventory/logs/installActions2018-04-18_08-33-54PM.log

    default: Prepare in progress.




    default: Finish Setup successful.

    default: The installation of Oracle Database 12c was successful.

    default: Please check '/opt/oracle/oraInventory/logs/silentInstall2018-04-18_08-33-54PM.log' for more details.




    default: Copying database files

    default: 1% complete

    default: 13% complete

    default: 25% complete

    default: Creating and starting Oracle instance

    default: 26% complete

    default: 30% complete




    default: 100% complete

    default: Look at the log file "/opt/oracle/cfgtoollogs/dbca/ORCLCDB/ORCLCDB.log" for further details.


    default: SQL*Plus: Release Production on Wed Apr 18 20:47:37 2018


    default: Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


    default: Connected to:

    default: Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release - 64bit Production

    default: SQL>

    default: Pluggable database altered.

    default: SQL>

    default: Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release - 64bit Production

    default: INSTALLER: Database created

    default: INSTALLER: Oratab configured

    default: Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/ to /etc/systemd/system/oracle-rdbms.service.


    default: INSTALLER: Created and enabled oracle-rdbms systemd's service

    default: INSTALLER: file setup


    default: INSTALLER: Installation complete, database ready to use!




Be sure to make a note of the generated password shown at the end of the output.


Next Steps


Connecting to the Database

To connect to your Database, you can either 1) ssh to the VM and interact with the database there; or 2) connect a database tool such as SQL Developer from your host machine to the VM.


1. ssh to the VM and interact with the database


The command vagrant ssh logs you in to the VM. This is another benefit of Vagrant — ssh keys are set up on both the host and the VM so that you can log in without a password. Next, set up the Oracle environment and use sqlplus to connect to the database with a connect string that includes a hostname and a service, in this case, localhost/orclpdb1.


$ vagrant ssh
[vagrant@oracle-12201-vagrant ~]$ . oraenv
ORACLE_HOME = [/home/oracle] ? /opt/oracle/product/
ORACLE_BASE environment variable is not being set since this
information is not available for the current user ID vagrant.
You can set ORACLE_BASE manually if it is required.
Resetting ORACLE_BASE to its previous value or ORACLE_HOME
The Oracle base remains unchanged with value /opt/oracle/product/
[vagrant@oracle-12201-vagrant ~]$ sqlplus system/<USE PASSWORD GENERATED BY SCRIPT>@localhost/orclpdb1

SQL*Plus: Release Production on Wed Apr 18 22:38:20 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Last Successful login time: Wed Apr 18 2018 22:37:28 +00:00

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release - 64bit Production



Note: If the generated password has a / or @ in it, you may need to use escaped quotes around the password as follows:


sqlplus system/\"WPEfu/mdpFU=1\"@localhost/orclpdb1


2. Connect the Database from the host system


You'll recall that the Vagrantfile set up port mapping in VirtualBox so that a connection to port 1521 on the local host is re-directed to port 1521 in the VM. This means  you can create a connection in Oracle SQL Developer as follows:


Create a new connection (Fig. 2)


Fig 2. Create a new connection



Unless you changed the defaults in the Vagrantfile, the connection details are (see Fig. 3)

Hostname: localhost

Port: 1521

Service name: orclpdb1




You are now ready to connect to the Database, create database objects and run queries.



Learn from the Database 12c Learning Library

If you are new to Oracle Database or Database 12c, try some of the tutorials in the Database 12c Learning Library.


Use Vagrant to Make and Restore Snapshot of your VM

Oracle VM VirtualBox has a snapshot feature so that you can make a snapshot of your VM in a known, good state and recover this state later.  Using Vagrant's CLI:


$ # shut down the vm first
$ vagrant halt
==> default: Attempting graceful shutdown of VM...
$ # create a snapshot called "freshdb"
$ vagrant snapshot save freshdb
==> default: Snapshotting the machine as 'freshdb'...
==> default: Snapshot saved! You can restore the snapshot at any time by
==> default: using `vagrant snapshot restore`. You can delete it using
==> default: `vagrant snapshot delete`.
$ # ...later ... restore the VM, making sure you don't trigger the provisioning steps in the Vagrantfile
$ vagrant snapshot restore freshdb --no-provision
==> default: Restoring the snapshot 'freshdb'...
==> default: Clearing any previously set forwarded ports...
==> default: Fixed port collision for 22 => 2222. Now on port 2200.
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
    default: Adapter 1: nat
==> default: Forwarding ports...
    default: 1521 (guest) => 1521 (host) (adapter 1)
    default: 5500 (guest) => 5500 (host) (adapter 1)
    default: 22 (guest) => 2200 (host) (adapter 1)
==> default: Running 'pre-boot' VM customizations...
==> default: Booting VM...


In this tutorial I showed how using only git, Oracle VM VirtualBox, and Vagrant you can perform an automated installation of Oracle Database 12c on your development machine.