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1Z0-047 is a much harder test and for that reason, the more valued to have. It 'covers' all of the topics from 1Z0-051 largely in that questions from any of those areas is fair game, but it concentrates more on those topics that are unique to it. I've written study guides for both tests. My 1Z0-047 guide devotes a bit under 40% of the book to reviewing the topics from 1Z0-051 and the rest on the new material for 047. I'd say that the test itself was weighted more like 25% or less to the 051 topics to 75%-plus to the 047 ones. That's very much a ballpark estimate, though.1 person found this helpful
Both tests have a very high percentage of questions that involve SQL as either part of the question or part of the answer. In the 051 test, the SQL is more straightforward, and 'bad' SQL generally has reasonably obvious flaws. In 047, the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' answers is often much more subtle. the 047 questions are also much trickier in that they will present perfectly functional SQL that 'looks' flawed because it has been presented in a weird fashion. Which test is better for you is something I can't answer. 047 will automatically get you a certification -- namely the SQL Expert even before you get your OCP. There is no similar 'interim' certification for 051.
As a beginner in Oracle, I'd have to suggest that you take the 1Z0-051 exam. It's a better foundation in the essentials. The 1Z0-047 exam was written specifically to try to pass only people with several years of experience in Oracle SQL. While I won't argue that it's not possible to study sufficiently to pass the 047 exam without that experience, I will say that it's going to be consderably harder to do.
Both of my guides are available in Kindle or paperback. If you have a Kindle and are an Amazon Prime member, you can borrow them for free.