I would ensure that BI and FR have completely started up without errors. In workspace, if you go to administration under RA select both Agent and Services - are all components showing a green icon saying they are completely started? Check the web logs under domains for FR and RA Framework to ensure those are up without exceptions. Also, on your RA Core server, user_projects\epmsystem1\diagnostics\logs\ check Reporting log defaultstdout.log to ensure there are no exceptions.
You might look for old residual process. Completely stop the env and then kill any remaining java* and RA* FR* processes.
I would think there is something wrong more internally than specifically with the image. The images may be more of a bi-product.
Does Tools -> Database Connection Manager or File -> Preferences -> Financial Reporting come up? (testing FR specifically)
You can delete your cookies in your browser, and delete the tmp folder and restart FR if you wish. Also, try to right click and grab the full url path to the image and try to bypass your web server and hit the jvm directly.
I am not sure what Patch ID's were applied to the 184.108.40.206 environment, but I know that .300 patches was applied for Web issues, Planning, Workspace, Reporting and Analysis and .302 patch for Financial reporting.