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The Fetch Archive Log Process (FAL) is a background Oracle process that runs on the primary database server.
1)Is FAL a method to resolve archive gaps?
The Standby can initiate requests to the FAL server process to send the missing archived redo logs if needed.
No. They are required if you set one or the other. FAL_CLIENT is not required in Oracle 11. In RAC systems I would always set them.
2) Is it mandatory to set FAL_SERVER & FAL_CLIENT on the standby database? Can Gap detection & resolution be possible without FAL process?
Yes, you can manaully resolve gap by registering a log file.
Server process. FAL Archiver processes
3) Is FAL a server process or background process? How to view FAL process from O/S?
No idea. In the alert log you might see :
ARC3: Becoming the ‘no FAL’ ARCH
FAL Gap Resolution is tied to MRP.
4) The FAL method of Gap Resolution is implemented by the MRP process on the standby during Log Apply processing . Automatic Gap Resolution is implemented during log transport processing. Am I correct in my understanding?
Automatic Gap Resolution is implemented during log transport processing.
Data Guard Gap Detection and Resolution [ID 232649.1]