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for you second question, as per my understanding:
if standby redo logs exists on standby database then RFS process will write to these files and then archive standby redo logs to apply. In case you are not using standby redo logs and using online redo logs then also RFS process at standby side write to online logfiles and then these files are archived for apply. At standby side two important services are RFS (responsible for
receving data from primary (ARCn/LNS) process and then deciding where to write this data "standby redo OR online redo") and MPR process (media recovery process).
The above thing holds true when running in maximum performance mode or real time apply is not in use and using ASYNC option in log_archive_dest.