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For example, can we create one rule regarding date format and can implement the same on all the fields having date as data type?
It depends how you model your rules.
Business Rules Check allows you to define rules for data quality checks in Excel, for example, which would allow you easily to clone rules and apply them to more than one attribute. Aside from this, and the use of rules within Parse and Match processors, EDQ does not have a 'rule' concept. Its processors can easily be copied and pasted to apply to more than one attribute. It is also often possible to use arrays to apply the same rule to multiple values.
For any type of 'rule' you can design reusable processes in EDQ and map data from different sources to the Data Interface used to read data in which then allows the reuse of rules across multiple sources.
Other than the different ways Mike has mentioned, we have implemented published and reference processors to package rules that need to be applied to different attributes in different projects. This also helps in managing changes in a single place.