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a simple question, what do these options mean?
I have a follow-up question on that.
I've been wondering about the two options. Right now my servers are running CentOS 7 with the stock kernel cloned from RHEL.
In a nutshell, what are the advantages of running the UEK kernel instead of the stock Red Hat kernel on a server?
In a nutshell? It's newer, tracks mainline more closely, is used on (almost) all Oracle Engineered Systems and powers Oracle Cloud. It has better hardware support, better file system support, more functionality and is less reliant on a single vendor's ability to back port large feature, functionality or bug fixes from mainline which is further and further ahead.
(The UEK is not used on the SPARC-based Supercluster or the ZFSSA, both of which run Solaris. The ZFSSA is technically a storage appliance not an Engineered system, but I mention it for completeness).