1 2 Previous Next 27 Replies Latest reply: Aug 9, 2012 6:56 AM by rukbat RSS

    Enlarge boot

    HuaMin Chen
      Hi,
      I see that only 12M available for boot in my OL 5.7? How to enlarge it?
      Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
      /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00 625G 339G 254G 58% /
      /dev/sda1 99M 83M 12M 88% /boot
      tmpfs 1.8G 0 1.8G 0% /dev/shm
      none 1.8G 104K 1.8G 1% /var/lib/xenstored

      Many Thanks & Best Regards,
      HuaMin
        • 1. Re: Enlarge boot
          Dude!
          You don't need to worry about the /boot partition unless you are planning to install additional system kernels. The /boot partition is only used to store files necessary to startup your system, which is normally a bootloader, kernel and initrd.img image. The reason why /boot is separate is due to technical limitations of certain systems (PC) where the BIOS is unable to use a large disk or address space beyond a certain address/size.
          • 2. Re: Enlarge boot
            HuaMin Chen
            Thanks a lot. But I can't set up these update due to that issue.
            installing package kernel-PAE-2.6.18-308.11.1.0.1.el5.i686 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package glibc-2.5-81.el5_8.4.i686 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package glibc-headers-2.5-81.el5_8.4.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package nspr-4.9.1-4.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package nss-3.13.5-4.0.1.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package openldap-2.3.43-25.el5_8.1.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package bind-libs-9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package xen-libs-3.0.3-135.el5_8.4.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package xen-3.0.3-135.el5_8.4.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package bind-utils-9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package sudo-1.7.2p1-14.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package nss-tools-3.13.5-4.0.1.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package libdhcp4client-3.0.5-31.el5_8.1.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package glibc-utils-2.5-81.el5_8.4.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package dhclient-3.0.5-31.el5_8.1.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package rgmanager-2.0.52-28.el5_8.3.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package nscd-2.5-81.el5_8.4.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package xulrunner-10.0.6-2.0.1.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package nspr-devel-4.9.1-4.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package nss-devel-3.13.5-4.0.1.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package glibc-devel-2.5-81.el5_8.4.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package openldap-devel-2.3.43-25.el5_8.1.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package firefox-10.0.6-1.0.1.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package thunderbird-10.0.6-1.0.1.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            installing package xulrunner-devel-10.0.6-2.0.1.el5_8.i386 needs 3MB on the /boot filesystem
            • 3. Re: Enlarge boot
              Dude!
              Can you show us what you have in /boot, e.g. "ls -l /boot"
              And also output of "uname -a" command
              • 4. Re: Enlarge boot
                HuaMin Chen
                Thanks. Here are what I've got
                [root@hpi5 ~]# ls -l /boot
                total 78231
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 70082 Mar 8 00:46 config-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 69866 Mar 8 00:54 config-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5xen
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 70082 Jun 13 03:19 config-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 69866 Jun 13 03:28 config-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5xen
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 70078 Jun 12 23:19 config-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 69862 Jun 12 23:27 config-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5xen
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 100558 May 5 03:31 config-2.6.32-300.24.1.el5uek
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 100558 May 16 08:07 config-2.6.32-300.25.1.el5uek
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 100558 Jun 20 02:22 config-2.6.32-300.27.1.el5uek
                drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1024 Jun 21 09:29 grub
                -rw------- 1 root root 4490868 Mar 29 13:18 initrd-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5PAE.img
                -rw------- 1 root root 4493408 Mar 29 13:16 initrd-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5xen.img
                -rw------- 1 root root 4494496 Jun 14 09:40 initrd-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5PAE.img
                -rw------- 1 root root 4496968 Jun 14 09:40 initrd-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5xen.img
                -rw------- 1 root root 4494445 Jun 13 15:28 initrd-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5PAE.img
                -rw------- 1 root root 4497151 Jun 13 15:29 initrd-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5xen.img
                -rw------- 1 root root 3681028 May 12 15:55 initrd-2.6.32-300.24.1.el5uek.img
                -rw------- 1 root root 3680992 May 18 10:03 initrd-2.6.32-300.25.1.el5uek.img
                -rw------- 1 root root 4115005 Jun 21 09:29 initrd-2.6.32-300.27.1.el5uek.img
                drwx------ 2 root root 12288 Mar 28 15:44 lost+found
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 115291 Mar 8 00:46 symvers-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5PAE.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 115579 Mar 8 00:54 symvers-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5xen.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 115340 Jun 13 03:19 symvers-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5PAE.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 115623 Jun 13 03:28 symvers-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5xen.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 115339 Jun 12 23:19 symvers-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5PAE.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 115629 Jun 12 23:27 symvers-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5xen.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 160903 May 5 03:32 symvers-2.6.32-300.24.1.el5uek.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 160903 May 16 08:07 symvers-2.6.32-300.25.1.el5uek.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 160903 Jun 20 02:23 symvers-2.6.32-300.27.1.el5uek.gz
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 987466 Mar 8 00:46 System.map-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 982670 Mar 8 00:54 System.map-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5xen
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 988104 Jun 13 03:19 System.map-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 983308 Jun 13 03:28 System.map-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5xen
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 988266 Jun 12 23:19 System.map-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 983470 Jun 12 23:27 System.map-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5xen
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1950406 May 5 03:31 System.map-2.6.32-300.24.1.el5uek
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1950406 May 16 08:07 System.map-2.6.32-300.25.1.el5uek
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1950604 Jun 20 02:22 System.map-2.6.32-300.27.1.el5uek
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1899956 Mar 8 00:46 vmlinuz-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2281608 Mar 8 00:54 vmlinuz-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5xen
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1900020 Jun 13 03:19 vmlinuz-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2282276 Jun 13 03:28 vmlinuz-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5xen
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1899892 Jun 12 23:19 vmlinuz-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5PAE
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2281984 Jun 12 23:27 vmlinuz-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5xen
                -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3749536 May 5 03:31 vmlinuz-2.6.32-300.24.1.el5uek
                -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3748864 May 16 08:07 vmlinuz-2.6.32-300.25.1.el5uek
                -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3749120 Jun 20 02:22 vmlinuz-2.6.32-300.27.1.el5uek
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 392262 Mar 8 00:34 xen.gz-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 392276 Jun 13 03:03 xen.gz-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5
                -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 392253 Jun 12 23:04 xen.gz-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5
                -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 854032 Mar 8 01:12 xen-syms-2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5
                -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 854032 Jun 13 03:43 xen-syms-2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5
                -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 854028 Jun 12 23:43 xen-syms-2.6.18-308.8.2.el5
                [root@hpi5 ~]# uname -a
                Linux hpi5.huamin.com 2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5xen #1 SMP Wed Mar 7 11:50:33 EST 2012 i686 i686 i386 GNU/Linux
                [root@hpi5 ~]#
                • 5. Re: Enlarge boot
                  Dude!
                  Gee-whiz!… you really have a lot of stuff in there. I suggest to delete all the kernel related files you dont' use.

                  Why are you using the XEN kernel? Are you providing virtualization inside your Linux OS? Because if not, and this is not a Dom0 (PVM) system, you are drastically limiting OS performance. For instance, if you are using Virtualbox or VMware, do not use a XEN kernel.
                  • 6. Re: Enlarge boot
                    HuaMin Chen
                    Thanks. Do you think I can remove all of those, like 'Xen..'? Is there another way to enlarge boot?
                    • 7. Re: Enlarge boot
                      Dude!
                      It is technically possible to enlarge the /boot partition, but the process is complex and may involve reinstalling the grub bootloader. You risk that the system will not startup anymore.

                      What are you going to do with 9 kernels? Simply remove the kernels you don't use and modify /boot/grub/grub.conf accordingly. From the list of your options, 2.6.32-300.27.1.el5uek and 2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5PAE are most likely the only kernels you need, which will solve your space problem.
                      • 8. Re: Enlarge boot
                        HuaMin Chen
                        Thanks a lot. What are the full names of both?
                        • 9. Re: Enlarge boot
                          Dude!
                          Assuming that you do not need to use a XEN kernel, as you did not answer my previous question, start the system using one of the following kernels:

                          - 2.6.32-300.27.1.el5uek
                          - 2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5PAE

                          The Oracle UEK kernel 2.6.32-300.27.1.el5uek should be fine and set to the default kernel.
                          Otherwise use the original older 2.6.18-308.8.2.0.1.el5PAE RHEL kernel as fallback.

                          Then modify /boot/grub/grub.conf to set the default kernel to the one you are using, and remove the kernel menu options and entries you do not need. Then restart the system to make sure it works and confirm the running kernel with the "uname" command.

                          Then simply delete the files that do not belong to these kernel versions and restart again to verify it still works.
                          • 10. Re: Enlarge boot
                            Avi Miller-Oracle
                            Dude wrote:
                            Then simply delete the files that do not belong to these kernel versions and restart again to verify it still works.
                            Please don't do this -- it won't change /boot/grub/grub.conf, so references to the old kernel will be left behind. Rather, you should use yum to remove the entire kernel package so that it tidies up after itself.
                            • 11. Re: Enlarge boot
                              HuaMin Chen
                              Good day all,
                              Thanks all.
                              Dude,
                              I used to use this when starting OL
                              2.6.18-308.1.1.0.1.el5Xen

                              which is fine for my accounting package.

                              If I delete one of the kernels in boot, do you think it will be easy to restore that one day when needed?

                              Many Thanks & Best Regards,
                              HuaMin

                              Edited by: HuaMin Chen on Aug 8, 2012 12:18 PM
                              • 12. Re: Enlarge boot
                                Avi Miller-Oracle
                                HuaMin Chen wrote:
                                If I delete one of the kernels in boot, do you think it will be easy to restore that one day when needed?
                                DO NOT DELETE THE KERNELS in /boot -- this is very BAD system administration.

                                You should use the yum utility to yum remove the unwanted/unused kernels so that they clean up after themselves. A kernel is not just it's /boot components. There are a lot of additional modules in /lib/modules and configuration in /boot and /etc that needs to be cleaned up so that you're not left in a position where it appears possible to boot with a specific kernel, but files are missing.

                                As you are using the Xen-variant kernel, you must be running this as a Xen PVM guest. Thus, you can use yum to remove all the PAE kernel variants, as they cannot boot in PVM mode anyway. Once you've removed all the PAE kernels, no new ones will be installed.

                                You can also check the /etc/yum.conf file for the installonly_limit setting. By default it's set to 3, which means yum will only maintain 2 older kernel versions as it installs a new one. This is another mechanism to limit the space used in /boot.
                                • 13. Re: Enlarge boot
                                  HuaMin Chen
                                  Many thanks.
                                  I see this was remarked on the file
                                  # installonly_limit = 3

                                  do you think I should un-remark it and is this one of reaons that leads to the size issue in boot?

                                  Many Thanks & Best Regards,
                                  HuaMin
                                  • 14. Re: Enlarge boot
                                    Avi Miller-Oracle
                                    HuaMin Chen wrote:
                                    do you think I should un-remark it and is this one of reaons that leads to the size issue in boot?
                                    Yes and yes. It means that yum did not remove older kernels as it installed newer ones, so space in /boot was never reclaimed.
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