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To upgrade to Oracle Database release 220.127.116.11, you must have to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database software into a new Oracle home .
and before upgrade run Pre-Upgrade Script .
complete guide is available
Pl see the documents referenced in this MOS Doc
Oracle Database Upgrade Path Reference List [ID 730365.1]
1)Download the 18.104.22.168 patchset and install oracle software into separate home
2)Take a backup of existing databases.
3) Run dbua
export ORACLE_HOME=<new 22.214.171.124 path>
dbua -silent -sid <sidname>
Assuming there is no GI installed
In 11g it is recommended to do out-of-place upgrade.
Have a read http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e23633/toc.htm for details
Hope it helps
Your question is already documented. Please review:
Minimizing Downtime During Production Upgrade [ID 478308.1]
Master Note For Oracle Database Upgrades and Migrations [ID 1152016.1]
Different Upgrade Methods For Upgrading Your Database [ID 419550.1]
I strongly suggest toe check my blog
In this pdf you can see patch of to upgrade db from x to n wiht many senerios wiht all related metalinks notes which is created by Oracle worker Mike Dietrich