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Static control can be used to check the integrity of the data in a table before or after an Interface is executed. Static control will check the existing data in the physical table against the logical constraints added to the ODI Datastore. For example, if your Datastore does not allow nulls in column EMPLOYEE_ID, but the physical table does, you can run static control check against the Datastore to check for any null values prior to executing the Interface.
Flow control will check the integrity of the data during execution of the Interface. Most often Flow control is necessary when executing ETL - joining multiple tables to load a single target table. For example, if an outer join between EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT fails because DEPARTMENT was not updated correctly, flow control will capture an error if DEPARTMENT_ID is not nullable in the target Datastore, prior to the null reaching the physical table.
The documentation can explain it further: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E17904_01/integrate.1111/e12641/quality.htm