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When you log in thru a tool like putty, you are logging in to the OS user "oracle". For exp, you need to specify a database account (such as SYSTEM) and password of that database account.
With 11gR2, original export is desupported - http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e22490/original_export.htm#BABBHCIE
You should be using expdp. If you are exporting for backup purposes, pl note that exports are not backups, you should be using RMAN
to make your database in archive log mode you need to give a downtime of your database for this you can do following steps.
if you are using spfile
1. shutdown the database.
2. startup in mount mode
3. use command 'alter database archivelog';
4. specify the archive log location using command
' alter system set log_archive_dest_1='LOCATION=location_path';'
5. specify archive log format as
'alter system set archive_log_format=your choice;'
6. enable the archive log dest using ' alter system set log_archive_dest_state_1=enable;'