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first of all please clarify, if you have Oracle clusterware installed, or just the local configuration for local ASM.
There is a big difference between the 2, and also using DRBD has nothing to do with Oracle clusterware (and is not supported by Oracle).
a.) Localconfig may be necessary for a local ASM installation in 10.2. Main reason is, that the CSS service configuraton includes the hostname (which changed if you switched nodes). Hence may not be able to start ASM. With localconfig you are fixing this issue.
Very important: It is not a good idea to run this is a cluster configuration, since it will break things (a lot of things).
b.) If the ASM diskgroup got dismouned, then the database cannot write. Hence your problem. Why the diskgroup dismounted, you should find in the ASM alert.log
c.) I would go for RAC One Node. Which has this all preconfigured. So it makes life easier. Search for "RAC One Node" on OTN for more information. At least I would take a manual cluster, and do mirroring by ASM, and not DRBD....
c1.) Yes install Oracle cluster (or Grid infrastucture in 11.2) on both nodes. Like a RAC.
c2) Install database software on both nodes locally.
c2.1) No. No DRDB.
c2.2) Both nodes. Same installation.