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the simple way is to know Informatica and use it to see the ETL lineage from OBIA tables (W_..._D for example) to Oracle EBS data.
Otherwise you can download "Oracle Business Intelligence Applications ETL Data Lineage Guide Release 7.9.6 , 18.104.22.168 [ID 829385.1]" on the Oracle support. With this document, you will have the same information without knowledge of Informatica but sometimes with bad link.
you can see site http://gerardnico.com/wiki/obia/obia to have a view of others OBIA documentation (Content Guide is a good source)
There is no one single doc that explains "how data from financials in particular populates the physical tables". What the other users have suggested is a starting point.
Since you have EBS knowledge previously, I would recommend the following:
1. First focus on the subject areas (AP, AR, GL, etc) you want to evaluate. Then find the FACT and DIMS that are used for these SAs (Usually there is w key FACT along w Possible Aggregates) and many Dimensions in each SA. You can use the Data Model Reference (DMR) or the DAC to see this
2. To get an idea of the FACTS, you can use the lineage guide or DAC to see which ETLs are involved. There is usually a set of SDE (Extracts), SILOS (Loads) and PLPs (post load for aggregates). Since you have EBS knowledge, you can just get the SQL from the Mapplets for the SDEs and it will show you the EBS tables involved
3. Similarly, for the DImensions you can trace the appropriate SDEs, SILOS. Note that DIMS are confirmed so the same DIm can be used across subject areas
After that, spend some time looking at the ETL code in Informatica and understanding the logic (this takes time..and its not something you wil llearn from any single doc). There are a few other items to note: INCREMENTAL/FULL loads, SCD dimensions, Aggregate Tables...try to focus on the basic data flow and not get too wrapped up in these concepts.
Hope that helps..pls mark CORRECT/HELPFUL if it does.
Many thanks for the considered response, very much appreciated.
I know this is no correct in these terms but consider yourself as getting double helpful points please!
I have previously developed my own solution against Oracle e-business so I am looking forward to seeing how the professionals tackled it. (No sarcasm intended or implied)