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few things you can check :
a) Is there a password file ? Is the password correct in it ?
b) SYSDBA remote login is disabled. remote_login_passwordfile is not set to EXCLUSIVE in the spfile or init.ora.
Set: remote_login_passwordfile= EXCLUSIVE
Create a password file:
orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapw$ORACLE_SID password=sys entries=5
C:\> orapwd file=%ORACLE_HOME%\database\pwd%ORACLE_SID% password= sys entries=5
To synchronize the password for sys for normal connections and connections as sysdba connect as a sysdba user and reset the sys password:
$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba" SQL> ALTER USER SYS IDENTIFIED BY change_on_install;