trying to make new connection, without installing any other oracle software of database software in my pc, I receive the message " the network adapter could not establish the connection. Hostname is localhost, port is 1521 and SID is xe or orcl or any other. Should I install client in order to make connection?
You said 'localhost' - that implies your database is running on your machine.
Have you installed Oracle server on your computer?
If not, I have some advice to get started after you've installed SQL Developer
Follow the below stpes
1. Download the oracle database installation document (available in PDF format on google search).
2. Download the oracle database product build from the oracle website.
3. Perform the installation as per the manual.
4. Configure the listener and then create the database using the Database Configuration Assistant or Enterprise Manager.
5. Connect the database via the SQL developer tool.
This should solve the issue for you.