I removed the two LIKE clauses and the query and the report runs fine. I wasn't going to even include those in the query I pasted above because they aren't required values and I didn't think they would be causing an issue.
It's so funny how I can assume I know what caused the issue and the solution is something entirely different. I was certain the issue was with the records I inserted into the table.
Thank you so much Howard for walking me through this; I really appreciate it. I'll find a DBA to help me rewrite those clauses and I should be all set. The odd thing is they worked before I added the new rows, but maybe that is a thread for another day.
Can you reply to this message so I can mark it as correct? I already marked your last message as helpful and I don't think I can undo that...
EDIT: the issue was that the records I inserted had column_value = NULL, so that this clause was preventing any rows from being returned even though it is an optional value and is usually null:
AND COLUMN_VALUE like ('%'||nvl(:P15_TRANS_VALUE, '%')||'%')
The other records in the table all had a value for column_value hence I never ran into this issue previously.