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Please, review this guide: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e10729/toc.htm
It is the 11.2 version of the manual but the manual gets improved from release to release so it is better to read this version. Refer to the 10.2 version of the manual to verify the languages and territories that are supported in 10.2: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/B19306_01/server.102/b14225/toc.htm
Note, Oracle has multiple levels of language support. The levels are, in increasing number of languages supported at this level:
1. Oracle Text supports advanced linguistic operations for the given language.
2. Error messages and user interface of many tools, including administrative tools, are translated to the given language.
3. Error messages and user interface of many end-user tools, but not administrative tools, are translated to the given language.
4. Oracle Text supports basic linguistic operations (e.g. stemming) for the given language.
5. Sorting according to conventions of the given language is supported.
6. Date, number and currency formatting according to conventions of the given language/territory is supported.
7. Text in the given language can be stored.
I am not quite sure about the order of levels 3-5, that is, which one contains more languages.
Date, number and currency formatting depends mainly on territories (countries), not languages.
Level 7, which is the ability of the database to store text in a given language and do some basic text processing on it, like SUBSTR, INSTR or LIKE, practically contains all languages of the world. The prerequisite is that the database character set is AL32UTF8.