Your abilities to communicate between host/vm, vm/host, vm/vm and Internet or Intranet depend on both, choosing the appropriate VirtualBox Ethernet adapter and configuring the TCP/IP stack of your VM guest OS accordingly.
How to ensure that an adapter uses a specific TCP/IP address? You need to use static TCP/IP addressing as opposed to DHCP. However, if you choose the wrong VirtualBox Ethernet adapter your network communication will not work regardless of how you configure the TCP/IP settings.
I still don't understand your actual question. The device eth0 usually corresponds to Network Adapter 1 of VirtualBox, and eth1 to Adapter no. 2. You can compare the device MAC (hardware) addresses in the VM network adapter settings with the output of your ifconfig command on the VM guest OS to make sure you are configuring the devices accordingly. Is this what you are asking?
You are not asking how to configure eth0 with a static IP address and eth1 with DHCP, are you?
Yes, I expect to have a static IP on eth0 and DHCP on eth1.
Here is what I get by "ifconfig".
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:4D:74:68
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fe4d:7468/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:25 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
RX bytes:243 (243.0 b) TX bytes:5243 (5.1 KiB)
There are many other sides and reference links providing such info. As well as the official product documentation. It shows you, including pictures, how to configure a static TCP/IP address under various Linux distributions and interfaces.
Does this answer your question?
P.S. A minimum effort and research including Google should be expected before posting a question. Consulting the documentation is also recommended by the forum etiquette.