1. You could use the classification features of the Parser to do these kind of string replaces in free text. See the online help for details about using the Parser.
2. You can now invoke an EDQ process from ODI using the "EnterpriseDataQuality Open Tool" - see http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E23943_01/integrate.1111/e12643/appendix_a.htm#BGBDDEIE
3. There's no English dictionary shipped with EDQ. Have a look online as there's plenty of open source dictionary data available. You can import this into EDQ as required.
4. See the relevant pages in the processor library in the online help, available either from the EDQ Launchpad or on OTN here: http://www.oracle.com/webfolder/technetwork/data-quality/edqhelp/index.htm