What do you see if you try to start SQLDeveloper from the bin directory? It should show you a console window with more error messages. If it hangs, try sending a Ctrl+/ to get a stack dump.
Works for me though. JDK 1.7.0_45, OS X 10.9.1, VMWare Fusion 6.0.0 (1296151). Tried it with and without a running VM.