Yes you can raise an invoice before receiving goods.
I believe you are new to Oracle Procurement. I will take the liberty to walk you through the business process.
There are primarily three kinds of items
a) Items which have asset Value (Inventory)
b) Items which don't have asset value (Expense) &
c) Items you want to track but don't have asset value (Inventory Expense, typically MRO items)
Now, for Expense Purchases, which are more likely to be a service or description based PO purchase, you might just want to issue a PO and match and pay the invoice from the vendor - Reasoning is that you are buying some service/ product which does not directly contribute to Organizations asset, however you purchase it for indirect usages within the Organization.
To achieve this, at the Shipment level of the PO, you need to have the Match level = 2 Way and Match Option = PO
Second Case - Items which you want to purchase based on item code and receive it in Inventory Organization. In this case, to enforce creation of receipt you need ensure that Match level = 3 Way and Match Option = Receipt.
Matching is a process where you compare the "Quantity" in PO to "Quantity" in Receipt with "Quantity" in Invoice.
Hope this clarifies.
Yes like abhi was saying you can track goods but not the inventory value.This can be done though Resp-Inv-Items-Master Items and unchecked Inventory Value Asset and Costing enabled.
You can also set up the match levels though Purchasing Options Navigation Setup-Organizations-Purchasing Parameters
To make it easy , you may also define item with Invoice match optiion , Receipt Required : No and Receipot Close Tolerance : 100% while defining item.
This will automate PO line to closed for receiving after po is approved and Invoice match option for the line to PO.
Hope this helps.