There is no installer, just a zip.
You can unzip it anywhere you want and are able to. Apparently you don't have the privs to unzip it there, but that's your OS talking, not us.
Actually, I DO have permissions to create folders there.
To prove it, I unzipped the files "Here" (to my local folder C:\Temp) where it created a folder name "sqldeveloper"
I then copied the newly created folder to C:\Program Files\Oracle\Oracle SQL Developer with no issues.
I still maintain it is a problem with your unzipping of the exe not respecting Microsoft rules for creating folders at the root of the C: drive
Sounds like the problem is with your archive client software?
My archive client software hasn't changed in 2 years.
I'm just reporting what I found.