When you used ssh, were you in your host/Mac environment or inside the VM? If you can use Apple Terminal app and make the same connection, then you have the server name/IP address right.
I suspect that you need change your hostname from localhost to the IP Address assigned to your VM. It may be that simple.
Here is a link that may be helpful.
Instead of the Bridged Adapter, why not set it to host-only?
Also, make sure your default Linux installation has the firewall turned off.