I wonder if you solved this issue yet? If so please let us know.
To me it looks like you have ASM problems. You probably need to upgrade your ASM installation before upgrading your database. Particularly if you are using Grid Control, it must be at least the same version as the database.
our grid version is 22.214.171.124.
the database version to be upgraded to is 126.96.36.199.
we were getting issues while bringing up the database in upgrade mode in 188.8.131.52.
so we tried bring up the database in upgrade mode in 184.108.40.206, it came up fine, so we decided to go for 220.127.116.11.
Going to Oracle 18.104.22.168.0 was clearly the better direction to go, as it is still under support; whereas, support ended for Oracle 22.214.171.124.0 quite some time ago.