I wonder if you solved this issue yet? If so please let us know.
To me it looks like you have ASM problems. You probably need to upgrade your ASM installation before upgrading your database. Particularly if you are using Grid Control, it must be at least the same version as the database.
our grid version is 18.104.22.168.
the database version to be upgraded to is 22.214.171.124.
we were getting issues while bringing up the database in upgrade mode in 126.96.36.199.
so we tried bring up the database in upgrade mode in 188.8.131.52, it came up fine, so we decided to go for 184.108.40.206.
Going to Oracle 220.127.116.11.0 was clearly the better direction to go, as it is still under support; whereas, support ended for Oracle 18.104.22.168.0 quite some time ago.