The closest thing I can think of is the PL/SQL Hierarchical Profiler.
But, that's a DB thing.
I don't know if it is available in SQL*Developer yet.
But that is profiling a run, not the code.
The database already maintains a list of dependencies between code (and tables). You'd want the ability to "drill down to more detail".
But, instead of Table Columns, it is Package component (function, procedures, types, etc)
If you create your own idea, I'd post a link to that one as a reference.
While not exactly what you are looking for, notice how the filter options in View > Find DB Object change depending on whether a connection is active or not. Without a connection, you see:
But with a connection active, you also get:
And between picking certain Identifier Types / Identifier Usages, you have some pretty powerful capabilities. Consider those.
you're describing exactly what PL/Scope offers
And if you compile your plsql with this enabled, then SQLDev makes it easy to find the answers to your questions